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Penetrating Space & Time Vol.3 : Time comes after the 'Big Bang' Phenomenon

By Unknown - February 10, 2018

The Big Bang Theory

From The Big Bang To The Present Day
Extrapolating the development of the universe over time with the use of general relativity produces an infinite period of time and temperature of the universe at some time in the past. This singularity signals the collapse of general relativity in these conditions. The closeness to which we can extrapolate to a singularity is debated, but not earlier than Planck's. The hot and dense initial phase itself is referred to as "the Big Bang", [cat 2] and is considered the "birth" of our universe.

Based on developmental measurements using Type Ia Supernova, measurement of temperature fluctuations on cosmic microwave backgrounds, and measuring the function of galactic correlations, the universe has an age of 13.73 ± 0.12 billion years. The compatibility of these three independent measurements strongly supports the ΛCDM model that describes in detail the content of the universe.

The earliest phases of the explosion are full of speculation. The most commonly used model says that the universe is homogeneously and isotropically filled with very high energy density, enormous pressure and temperature, and rapidly expands and cools. Approximately 10-37 seconds after development, phase transitions led to cosmic inflation, which at that time the universe exponentially expanded. After inflation stops, the universe consists of a quark-gluon plasma along with other elementary particles. 

The temperature at that time is so high that the speed of particle motion reaches the speed of relativity, and the production of pairs of all kinds of particles is continuously created and destroyed. Until a time, an unknown reaction called bariogenesis violates the conservation of the number of baryons and causes the number of quarks and leptons to be more than antibiotics and antileptons by one per 30 million. This causes the dominance of matter beyond antimatter in the universe. 

The size of the universe continues to expand and the temperature of the universe continues to decline, so that the energy of each particle continues to decline. The phase transition of symmetry destruction makes the fundamental forces of physics and parameters of elementary particles in the same conditions as they are today. After about 10-11 seconds, the explosive picture becomes more pronounced because the particle energy has decreased to the energy that can be achieved by particle physics experiments.

At about 10-6 seconds, the quarks and gluons combine to form barions such as protons and neutrons. Quarks that are a bit more than antikuarks make the barion a little more than antibarions. The current temperature is no longer high enough to produce proton-antiproton pairs, so the next one is mass destruction, leaving only one of the 1010 protons and neutrons. After this destruction, the remaining protons, neutrons, and electrons no longer move relativistically and the density of the universe's energy is dominated by photons (with a small part coming from neutrinos).

A few minutes during development, when the temperature of about one billion Kelvin and the density of the universe is equal to the density of air, the neutrons join the protons and form the nuclei of deuterium and helium atoms in a process known as nucleosynthesis of a powerful explosion. Most protons are still unbound as hydrogen nuclei. Along with the cooling of the universe, the density of the mass mass of matter is gravitationalally dominating. After 379,000 years, electrons and nuclei converge into atoms (mostly hydrogen) and material radiation begins to stop. The remains of this radiation that continue to move through the universe are known as cosmic microwave background radiation.

Over a very long period, the slightly denser universe areas began to gravitationalally gravitate surrounding matter, forming clouds of gases, stars, galaxies, and other observable astronomical objects. The details of this process depend on the number and type of matter of the universe. There are three possible types of matter, namely dark matter of cold, dark matter of heat, and baryonic material. The best measurements obtained from the WMAP show that the dominant form of matter in the universe is dark matter of cold. The other two types of matter occupy less than 18% of the matter of the universe.
The Hubble Ultra Field  exhibits galaxies from ancient times when the universe was younger, denser, and warmer according to the theory of the mighty explosion.

The independent evidence derived from Type Ia supernovae and cosmic microwave background radiation implies that the universe is now dominated by a kind of mysterious form of energy called dark energy, which seems to penetrate all space. This observation suggests that 72% of the total energy density of the universe is now in the form of dark energy. When the universe was very young, it was likely to have been infiltrated by dark energy, but in a narrow space and close together. At that time, gravity dominates and slowly slows the development of the universe. However, in the end, after several billion years of development, increasingly abundant dark energy causes the development of the universe to begin slowly more rapidly.

Any cosmic evolution that occurs after this inflationary period can be strictly described and modeled by the ΛCDM model, which uses the independent framework of quantum mechanics and Einstein's general relativity. As already mentioned, no model can explain events before 10-15 seconds after a major explosion. The quantum theory of gravity is needed to overcome this limitation.

Scientists believe when time and space are connected and can not be separated from one another. The existence of space is also an indication of the presence of motion. When Big Bang occurred 13.7 billion years ago, the enormous explosion it produced formed spaces and movements in the universe. The Big Bang blast is believed to start an entire movement of objects in the universe from a tiny point. Therefore, humans can not measure the time before the Big Bang. Based on Einstein's theory of relativity, the new time comes after a powerful explosion that marks the beginning of the universe or the 'Big Bang' takes place.

Related Articles :

Penetrating Space & Time Vol.1 : Atomic Clock

Penetrating Space & Time Vol.2 : Gravity Affects the Speed of Time

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