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Type of F1 Engine

By Unknown - February 05, 2018


Formula 1 engine roar that is so distinctive and hard but with a lightweight can reach the high round. The image of a nimble machine sticking out through the roar that for some people is considered like the music of an orchestra group whose personnel are machine components. This is inseparable from the character of the machine itself is always playing in superfast round. With its peak capable of reaching 20,000 rpm, so often called F1 as 'land jet".

Since its inception in 1947, Formula One has used a variety of engine regulations. "Formulas" limiting engine capacity has been used in the Grand Prix racing on a regular basis since after World War I. The engine formula is divided according to the era.

So short that the piston step is shorter than its piston diameter with a ratio of up to 1: 2. In other words the piston step length is half the diameter. Consequently the engine rotation tends to be higher than conventional machines. The engine with short steps has a weakness in producing torque, to cover the weakness, the number of cylinders made more between 6, 8, 10, even 12 cylinders. However, for reasons of driver's soul safety, the FIA ​​rolls out regulation limiting the amount not to exceed 8 cylinders and engine capacity is limited to only 2.400cc.

Turbo devices are also forbidden, in other words 'breath' machines rely solely on the vacuum created by the piston suction step aka normally aspirated. However, engine designers collaborate with F1 car designers to work with it by making a 'funnel' at the top of the racer's head to 'capture' and 'force' the air to squeeze intake channels that have the effect of a turbocharger effect.

In order for the machine to easily reach the spontaneous high rotation, the components are made as light as possible, and the component strength is one of the key victories in order for the machine to be gebered during the competition. Therefore, the 'innards' moving machine is made of lightweight yet tough material.




Round engine up to 20,000 rpm makes F1 engine designers to forget about conventional valve reversing devices made of steel springs. Because the material will not be able to handle the movement sedahsyat it. If it is forced, then there will be floating effect on the valve. Instead, a pneumatic system is used with the help of air pressure that is believed to be more capable of moving the valve at lightning speed.

As a refinement step, the valve is made of strong and lightweight material to help open-close process can take place extra fast. Even a mixture of titanium and magnesium that was once considered sophisticated, is now considered primitive. Instead, ceramic material is used because it has been proven to be more resistant to heat to thousands of degrees with a weight that is not less light. Thus the engineers can more freely develop the engine power to achieve maximum brick ability. To compensate for the ability of such machines, the fuel supply and ignition timing are governed by a popular machine machine called ECU (Electronic Control Unit).


Here is the development of the engine used in F1 since the 1950s:

In 1952-1953, this machine uses the rules of Formula 2 engine with a capacity of 2000-3000 cc. Especially for the Indianapolis 500 use the regulations as before the war. The machine used is a voiturette machine (miniature) from the time before the war.
Size = 4,500 cc (atmospheric) and 1,500 cc (supercharged)
Cylinder configuration = V12, I4, I6
Power = 425 horsepower
Famous Participants = Alfa Romeo, Ferrari, Talbot, Maserati, ERA, BRM, Gordini



In 1954-1960, The size of the engine decreases, 750cc supercharged car is allowed, but none wear it. But specifically for the Indianapolis 500 still use the regulations as before the war.
Size = 2,500 cc (without turbo) and 750 cc (with turbo)
Cylinder configuration = V8, I4, I6, I8
Power = 290 horsepower
Famous Participants = Lancia, Ferrari, Mercedes, Maserati, Offenhauser



In 1961-1965, The machine previously located at the front, this time moved so located at the back with a smaller capacity.

Size = 1,500 cc
Cylinder configuration = V8, V6, I4, V12, Flat 4
Power = 150-225 horsepower
Famous Participants = BMW, Ferrari, Maserati, Ford, Climax, BRM




In 1966-1986, The proliferation of sports cars that perform the same as F1 racing car causes FIA enlarge the capacity of the engine to increase power. In this era of front-rear-winged cars were introduced to replace the old form which is only a form of cigar.

Size = 3000 cc (without turbo) and 1500 cc (with turbo)
Cylinder Configuration = V6, V8, V12, I4, Flat-12
Power = 390-500 horsepower (regular), 500-900 horsepower (racing) and 1,100 horsepower (qualification)
Famous Participants = Alfa Romeo, Ford, Ferrari, Honda, BMW, BRM, Maserati, Renault Gordini, Repco



In 1987-1994, The FIA ​​regulations limit the boost pressure, to 4 bar during qualifying for a 1.5-liter turbo engine. But starting in 1989, turbocharger is prohibited to use.

Size = 3,500 cc
Cylinder configuration = V10, V12, V8
Power = 600-820 horsepower.
Famous Participants = Honda, Lamborghini, Ferrari, Renault, Ford, Mercedes, Porsche



In 1995-2005, The F1 engine, at this time only one configuration, with increased engine speed than the previous machines (18,000-20,000 rpm), led to higher noise levels. Starting in 2005, the FIA ​​issued a regulation that the engine must remain in use until the next 2 races. The F1 era machine is also remembered by various parties as the strongest and best racing machine in history.

Size = 3,000 cc
Cylinder configuration = V10
Power = 650-950 horsepower
Famous Participants = Ferrari, Mercedes, Renault, Honda, BMW


In 2006-2013, The capacity of the machine decreases due to the increasing expenses of the team. Engine speed is also limited to 18,000 revolutions per minute. Then in 2009, a kinetic energy recovery system (KERS) was introduced which can provide extra power - from wasted kinetic energy - during braking as the car accelerates.

Size = 2400 cc
Configuration Cylinder = V8
Power = 750 horsepower (excluding 80 additional horsepower from KERS)
Notable participants = Ferrari, Renault, Mercedes, BMW, Cosworth



Since 2014, Due to want to create a more "green" race, FIA lowered its engine capacity. But this time machine is equipped with turbocharger and energy recovery system (ERS) that generate more power, because ERS also absorbs additional heat energy from turbocharger discharges, not just from kinetic energy only). Engine speed is also limited to 15,000 rpm.

Size = 1600 cc
Cylinder Configuration = V6
Power = 600 horsepower (plus 160 horsepower from the ERS) for a total of 760 horsepower
Notable participants = Ferrari, Renault, Mercedes

The technology used by some of the current F1 Team:


Renault Energy F1-2014 V6 Turbo


F1 - Ferrari V6 powerunit


BMW F1 Car BT52 1,280 hp Engine Assembly


Mercedes F1 Engine



Related article :

Some Interesting Facts About F1 Racing

The History of Formula One : Grand Prix Begin

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