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All About Aerodynamics

By Unknown - February 05, 2018



Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (water) + δυναμική (dynamics), the study of the motion of water, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing. Aerodynamics is a sub-field of fluid dynamics and gas dynamics, and many aspects of aerodynamics theory are common to these fields. The term aerodynamics is often used synonymously with gas dynamics, the difference being that "gas dynamics" applies to the study of the motion of all gases, and is not limited to air. The formal study of aerodynamics began in the modern sense in the eighteenth century, although observations of fundamental concepts such as aerodynamic drag were recorded much earlier. Most of the early efforts in aerodynamics were directed toward achieving heavier-than-air flight, which was first demonstrated by Otto Lilienthal in 1891. Since then, the use of aerodynamics through mathematical analysis, empirical approximations, wind tunnel experimentation, and computer simulations have formed a rational base for the development of heavier-than-air flights and a number of other technologies. Recent work in aerodynamics has focused on issues related to compressible flow, turbulence, and boundary layers and has become increasingly computational in nature. [more...]
Aerodynamics is a science that studies about the movement of an object in the air. The science of air force is a continuation of the older science that is the science of motion or hydrodynamic motion and the science of air movement is closely related to some other science of the natural sciences (physics), exact science (mathematics), the science of style (mechanics), and weather science (meteorogia) which provides basic information about the still air, especially about changes experienced by air if the height increases.

Aerodynamics is actually a science that studies or investigates the properties of air, the reactions and consequences that arise from the movement of air against the object through which air or the movement of objects in the air pass. So aerodynamics also means knowledge or investigation of the movements of objects in the air where this understanding is very closely related to your flight.
The factors that affect Aerodynamics:

  • Temperature (air temperature)
  • Air pressure
  • Air speed
  • Density / density of air
Humans have used aerodynamic forces for thousands of years in the form of sailboats and windmills. Aviation images and stories have appeared throughout history written, eg the legendary story of Icarus and Daedalus. Although observations of some aerodynamic effects such as wind resistance (eg shear forces) have been written by Aristotle, Leonardo da Vinci, and Galileo Galilei, very little effort has been made to develop a thorough quantitative theory of airflow before the 17th century.


History of Aerodynamics

In 1505, Leonardo da Vinci wrote the Codex on Bird Flights, one of the earliest treatises on aerodynamics. He wrote for the first time that the flying mass center of a bird was not coincident with its center of pressure, and he described the construction of an ornitopter, with flapping wings, like bird wings.

Sir Isaac Newton was the first to develop the theory of inertia of the air, making it one of the earliest aerodinamikawan. As part of that theory, Newton saw that the shift was caused by the dimension of the object, fluid density, and the speed of the two. This is all proven true for low flow rate. Newton also developed a law for shear forces on flat plates that lean toward fluid flow. Using F for shear forces, ρ for density, S for flat plate area, V for flow velocity, and θ for skew angle, this law is presented as {\displaystyle F=\rho SV^{2}\sin ^{2}(\theta )}

In 1738 the Dutch-Swiss mathematician Daniel Bernoulli published Hydrodynamica, in which he explained the fundamental relationship between pressure, density, and speed; particularly Bernoulli's principle, the method for calculating aerodynamic lift. The more general fluid flow equations - Euler's equations - were published by Leonhard Euler in 1757. Euler's equations were expanded to combine viscosity effects in the first half of the 1800s, resulting in Navier-Stokes equations.

Sir George Cayley is recognized as the first person to recognize four aerodynamic forces in flight; namely gravity, lift, drag, and thrust-and the relationship between them. Cayley believes that the drag force on the glyph has to be "resisted", in the sense of a propulsion to raise the level of flight. Cayley also noticed the nature of the aerodynamic builds with low drag. Among the wake she investigates is cross section of trout (trout). It may appear against intuition; however, fish bodies are formed to produce very low barriers as they move and move around in water. Their cross-sections are sometimes very close to modern low-hanging airfoils.

A more careful way to measure the drag force is to place an object in a uniformly arranged artificial air stream, at which speed is known. The first person to conduct this experiment was Francis Herbert Wenham, who also built the wind tunnel experiment in 1871. Wenham is also the first member of the professional organization dedicated to aeronautical affairs, the Royal Aeronautical Society, in the United Kingdom. The objects placed inside the wind tunnel model are almost always smaller than they actually are, so this method is needed to connect small-scale models with their real-life analogy. This was achieved through the discovery of Reynolds numbers without dimension by Osborne Reynolds. Reynolds also experimented with the transition of flow, from laminar flow to turbulence flow in 1883.

In 1889, Charles Renard, a French aviation engineer, became the first person to reasonably foresee the power necessary to maintain a state of flux. Renard and the German physicist Hermann von Helmholtz explored the wings of birds (the weight ratio of wingspan), which actually concluded that humans would not be able to fly with their own strength simply by attaching wings to their arms. Otto Lilienthal, following the work of Sir George Cayley, was the first man to be quite successful with his launcher flight. Lilienthal believed that thin air foils and curves would produce a high lift and low drag force.


vortex is created by the passage of an aircraft wing, revealed by smoke. Vortices are one of the many phenomena associated with the study of aerodynamics.


Early Aviation, Development of Aerodynamics

With the information contained in his book Octave Chanute, personal assistance from Chanute himself, and research done in the wind tunnel they created, the Wright Brothers gained sufficient aerodynamic knowledge to fly the first airplane on December 17, 1903. The Wright Brothers flight validated some theories aerodynamics and canceling some others. The theory of Newton's inhibitory style is ultimately proven wrong. This first widely publicized flight has sparked a more organized effort between aviators and scientists, guiding the way to modern aerodynamics.


Supersonic : The term speed of sound on an airplane
As planes begin to travel faster, aerodynamic experts realize that the density of air begins to change as it comes into contact with objects, leading to a division of the flow of fluid to compressible and compressible flow regimes. In compressible aerodynamics, the density and pressure of both changes, which is the basis for calculating the speed of sound. Newton was the first to develop a mathematical model to calculate the speed of sound, but that was not true until Pierre-Simon Laplace contributed the molecular behavior of the gas and introduced the heat capacity ratio. The ratio of the flow velocity to the speed of sound is named Mach number after Ernst Mach, which is one of the first to investigate the supersonic flow traits that include Schlieren photography technique to visualize density changes. William John Macquorn Rankine and Pierre Henri Hugoniot independently developed the theory for flow properties before and after shock waves. Jakob Ackeret led early work on counting lifts and drag on supersonic airfoils. Theodore von Karman and Hugh Latimer Dryden introduced the term transonic to describe the flow velocity around Mach 1 in which tensile increases rapidly. Because the tensile increase approaches Mach 1, aerodynamic and pilot experts disagree on whether the supersonic plane is reached.

Ferrari Wind Tunnel Testing

Redbull Wind Tunnel Testing

Honda Racing Wind Tunnel Testing

Today, aerodynamics is not only developed on aircraft technology, but has entered into the technology of cars and motorcycles, especially cars and motor racing. Technology in the F1 car, we can see so rapid development of this aerodynamic technology.

Related Link :

The History of Formula One : Grand Prix Begin

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