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DNA Test Methods for Determining the Human Lineage

By Unknown - February 19, 2018

In their DNA, living things possess exceedingly wide-ranging information. A literal data bank describes all the physical details of an organism's body in a space of only 1 / 100,000th of a meter in size. In addition, there is also a system that reads this information in the living body, analyzes it, and sets about production. The information in the DNA of all enzymes, and proteins are produced in the light of that information. Millions of proteins are produced every second in line with your body's requirements. Thanks to this system, dead blood cells are replaced with living ones.

All the scientific research carried out in the 20th century, the results of all the experiments and all the observations, revealed that the information in DNA as materialists would have us believe. To put it another way, it definitively rejects the idea that the DNA is merely a collection of organic compounds and that all the information it contains came about as the result of chance interactions.

The structure of the DNA is double helix. 
The atoms in the structure are listed in the bottom right.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (/ diɒksiˌraɪboʊnjʊˌkliːɪk, -ˌkleɪɪk / ; DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides that carries the genetic code used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), they are one of the major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. Most DNA molecules consist of two biopolymers strands coiled around each other to form a double helix.

The two DNA strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group. The nucleotides are joined to one another in a chain by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next, resulting in an alternating sugar-phosphate backbone. The nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands are bound together, according to the base pairing rules (A with T and C with G), with hydrogen bonds to make double-stranded DNA.

The complementary nitrogenous bases are divided into two groups, pyrimidines and purines. In a DNA molecule, the pyrimidines are thymine and cytosine, the purines are adenine and guanine.

DNA stores biological information. The DNA backbone is resistant to cleavage, and both strands of the double-stranded structure store are the same biological information. This information is replicated as and when the two strands separate. A large part of DNA (more than 98% for humans) is non-coding, meaning that these sections do not serve as patterns for protein sequences.

The two strands of DNA run in opposite directions to each other and are thus antiparallel. Attached to each sugar is one of four types of nucleobases (informally, bases). It is the sequence of the four nucleobases along the backbone that encodes biological information. RNA strands as a template in a process called transcription. Under the genetic code, these RNA strands are translated into the sequence of amino acids within proteins in a process called translation.

Within eukaryotic cells DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes. During cell division these chromosomes are duplicated in the process of DNA replication, providing each cell of its own complete set of chromosomes. Eukaryotic organisms (stores, plants, fungi and protists) store most of their DNA in the cell nucleus and some of their DNA in organelles, such as mitochondria or chloroplasts. [4] In contrast prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) store their DNA only in the cytoplasm. Within the eukaryotic chromosomes, chromatin proteins such as histones compact and organize DNA. These compact structures guide the interactions between DNA and other proteins, helping control which parts of DNA are transcribed. [more...]

DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, called a DNA profile, which is as likely to be different in unrelated individuals, thereby being as unique to individuals as are fingerprints (hence the alternative name for the technique). DNA profiling with the aim of identifying an individual but a species is called DNA barcoding.

DNA profiling is the most commonly used as a forensic technique in criminal investigation to identify a person at a crime scene or to eliminate a person from consideration. DNA profiling has also been used to help clarify paternity, in immigration disputes, in parentage testing and in genealogical research or medical research. DNA fingerprinting has also been used in the field of zoology, botany, and agriculture

Developed by Professor of Genetics Sir Alec Jeffreys, the process begins with a sample of an individual's DNA (typically called a "reference sample"). A common method of collecting a reference sample is the use of a buccal swab, which is easy, non-invasive and cheap. When this is not available (eg because a court order is needed but not available) other methods may need to be used to collect a sample of blood, saliva, semen, vaginal lubrication, or other appropriate fluid or tissue from personal items (eg a toothbrush, razor) or from stored samples (eg banked sperm or biopsy tissue). Samples obtained from blood relatives (related by birth, not marriage) can provide an indication of an individual's profile, as could the human remains that had been previously profiled.

A reference sample is then analyzed to create the individual's DNA profile using one of a number of techniques, discussed below. The DNA profile is then used against another sample to determine whether there is a genetic match. [more...]

Genome from Africa
For the first time, an early genome from Africa was successfully sequenced on the basis of the efforts of researchers who took DNA from a 4,500-year-old skull found in the Ethiopian plateau.

The comparison with African genetic material in the present day reveals the way human ancestors mingled and moved around the continent.

The findings, published in the journal Science - suspect about 3,000 years ago there was a huge migration wave from Eurasia to Africa. This event has left a genetic heritage and scientists believe up to 25% of modern African nation DNA can be traced.

"Every population in our Africa has a large enough component of Eurasian offspring," says Dr. Andrea Manica of the University of Cambridge, who conducted the research.

Petrous Bones
Ancient genomes have been sequenced in different parts of the world, but it is difficult to do so in Africa because hot and humid conditions can destroy fragile DNA molecules.

However, the 4500-year-old body belonging to a hunter-gatherer, known as The Mota Man, was found in a cave and preserved well. The bone just below the ear, or petrous bone, is found intact.

"Petrous bones are very hard. And it could well prevent the entry of bacteria that can damage DNA, "Manica told BBC World Service.

"We get high-quality DNA impeccably so it can reconstruct the individual's genome in its entirety. We have a complete 'blueprint', every gene, every piece of information that makes this individual live over 4,500 years ago in Ethiopia, "he said.

Bulk migration
The genome reveals the fact that Mota Man has pure African DNA and his ancestors have never moved from the continent. But the comparison with the modern African genome shows that some 1,500 years after his death, the continent's order has changed.

Genetic studies show that after a massive migration out of Africa, which occurred some 60,000 years ago, some individuals returned to the continent. The study also showed about 3,000 years ago, a larger-than-expected migration.

Neolithic Farmers from western Eurasia, which some 8,000 years ago brought agriculture to Europe, then began to return to Africa.

"We know now that they may be mixed with some communities that have lived in East Africa (back then). There was a huge backlash, very many people, "said Manica.

It is unclear what caused this move-the possibility of changes that took place in the Egyptian kingdom-but the event has left a genetic heritage.

"Quite amazingly, we see about 20% or a fifth, the genome of people living in Ethiopia actually comes from Eurasia."

"But if we go to all corners of Africa, go all the way to West Africa or South Africa, even the population we regard as pure Africans has 6% of the genome coming from those Eurasian farmers," Manica said.
[Source : BBC.COM]

Example of DNA Test

Along with the development of science and technology, there is actually a more sophisticated way to determine the origin. Someone can take a DNA test. But this type of DNA test is not to ensure that she is the child of her parents.

This DNA test aims to trace the genetic mixture geographically. This means that a person can be 100% sure he or she is from a certain race and ethnic based on the place where he was born. But through this test it can be proven that in fact he genetically inherited from other races through his ancestors in the past. This test is called DNA Ancestry Test.

Someone with the account name gpl992 a mixed blood of Ambon and Europe once published the test results on Youtube. The first fact he knew was that his father was from Europe and his mother was a Moluccas. After he took the DNA Ancestry test he found a variety of genetic mixtures in him. The test results show that in itself there are 48% Europe, 18% Melanesia, 31% Pacific Island, 1% South Asia and Middle East, and 2% Africa.

The results of a DNA test for the proliferation of these ancestors show that a person's self is a combination of his ancestors. From the tests done by the gpl992 account above we at least know that at least he inherited Melanesia and the Pacific Islands from his mother's path.

It can also be interpreted that in Maluku itself there is a mixture of human groups between Melanesia and the Pacific. So is the case with other geographic areas where the percentage is small. There is a possibility that part he got from his ancestors who are very far away. For example the Middle East is only 1%, this probably comes from his Jewish ancestors remember him as a religious adherents .

Related article :

DNA Genesis : The Children Of Adam

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