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The 'Myth' City That Ever Lost Thousands of Years, Then Appears (Vol. 2)

By Unknown - February 03, 2018

Royal Mystical Kingdom
(Cantre'r Gwaelod)

Cantre'r Gwaelod, also known as Cantref Gwaelod or Cantref y Gwaelod (English: The Lowland Hundred), is a legendary ancient sunken kingdom said to have occupied a tract of fertile land lying between Ramsey Island and Bardsey Island in what is now Cardigan Bay to the west of Wales. It has been described as a "Welsh Atlantis" and has featured in folklore, literature and song.

Many versions of the same story exist to explain how this area came to be claimed by the sea. Until about the 17th Century, the lost land was called Maes Gwyddno (the land of Gwyddno). This early legend has it that the land was drowned when the priestess of a fairy well allowed the water to overflow. (next..)

Cantre'r Gwaelod was an area of ​​land which, according to legend, was located in an area west of present-day Wales which is now under the waters of Cardigan Bay. Accounts variously suggest the tract of land extended from Bardsey Island to Cardigan or as far south as Ramsey Island. Legends of the land suggest that it has extended 20 miles west of the present coast.

There are several versions of the myth. The earliest known form of the legend is usually said to appear in the Black Book of Carmarthen, in which the land is referred to as Maes Gwyddno (English: the Plain of Gwyddno). In this version, the land was lost to floods when a well-maiden named Mererid neglected her duties and allowed the well to overflow.

There is no reliable physical evidence of the substantial community that legend promises lies under the sea, although some reports existed remains sighted. In 1770, Welsh antiquarian scholar William Owen Pughe reported seeing sunken human habitations about four miles (6.4 km) off the Ceredigion coast, between the rivers Ystwyth and Teifi.

In the 1846 edition of The Topographical Dictionary of Wales, Samuel Lewis described a feature of stone walls and causeways beneath the shallow waters of Cardigan Bay:
" In the sea, about seven miles west of Aberystwyth in Cardiganshire, is a collection of loose stones, termed Caer Wyddno, "the fort or palace of Gwyddno;" and adjoining it are vestiges of one of the more southern causeways or embankments of Catrev Gwaelod. The depth of water over the whole extension of the bay of Cardigan is not great; and on the recess of the tide, stones bearing Latin inscriptions, and Roman coins of various emperors, have been found below the water in the water, also, are observed prostrate trees. "

- Samuel Lewis, The Topographical Dictionary of Wales.

The "causeways" described by Lewis can be seen today at beaches around Cardigan Bay. Known as Sarnau, these ridges stretch several miles into the sea at right angles to the coast, and are located between the four river mouths in the north of Cardigan Bay. Modern geologists surmise that the formations of clay, gravel and rocks are moraines formed by the action of melting glaciers end of the last ice age. In a 2006 episode of the BBC television documentary Coast, presenter Neil Oliver visited Sarn Gynfelyn at Wallog. The program is also featured in the submerged forest at Ynyslas, near Borth which is associated with the lost land of Cantre'r Gwaelod. The vista of dead oak, pine, birch, willow and hazel tree stumps preserved by the acid anaerobic conditions in the soil is revealed at low tide and is estimated to be about 5000 years old. (next..)

Angkor Wat

Angkor Wat (Khmer: អង្គរវត្ត or "Capital Temple") is a temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world, on a site measuring 162.6 hectares (1,626,000 m2; 402 acres).It was originally constructed as a Hindu temple of god Vishnu for the Khmer Empire, gradually transforming into a Buddhist temple towards the end of the 12th century. It was built by the Khmer King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century in Yaśodharapura (Khmer: យសោធរបុរៈ, present-day Angkor), the capital of the Khmer Empire, as his state temple and eventual mausoleum. Breaking from the Shaiva tradition of previous kings, Angkor Wat was instead dedicated to Vishnu. As the best-preserved temple at the site, it is the only one to have remained a religious religious center since its foundation. The temple is at the top of the high classical style of Khmer architecture. It has become a symbol of Cambodia, appearing on its national flag, and it is the country's prime attraction for visitors.

Angkor Wat combines two basic plans of Khmer temple architecture: the temple-mountain and the later galleried temple. It is designed to represent Mount Meru, home of the devas in Hindu mythology: within a moat and an outer wall 3.6 kilometers (2.2 mi) long are three rectangular galleries, each raised above the next. At the center of the temple stands a quincunx of towers. Unlike most Angkorian temples, Angkor Wat is oriented to the west; scholars are divided as to the significance of this. The temple is admired for the grandeur and its harmony of the architecture, its extensive bas-reliefs, and for the numerous devatas adorning its walls.  [Wikipedia..]

The city is not a city or civilization lost due to disaster or colonization, but only because it was abandoned by the people, making the city and thousands of temples 'dead' in the depths of the forest. For about 300 years, the city was a lost city until it was discovered in the 18th century. As an illustration, this city can be called as the largest city in the world in pre-industrial times. Rumor has it that this place was abandoned due to population explosions and lack of infrastructure support.

Petra : The Lost of Stone City

Petra (from πέτρα petra, "stone" in Greek: Arabic: البتراء, al-Bitrā) is an archaeological site in Ma'an, Jordan. This place is famous for its architectural buildings carved in rocks and irrigation systems. Expected to be built early in 312 BC, as the capital of Nabath, now a symbol of Jordan, and also a favorite tourist spot. This place lies in the lowland between the mountains of Mount Hor which forms the eastern wing of Wadi Araba, the great valley that originates from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba.

The site was never discovered by the western world until 1812, when Swiss traveler Johann Ludwig Burckhardt found it for the first time. The site is described as "an antique red rose city" in one of the poems that won the Newdigate Prize race, the work of John William Burgon. While UNESCO declared it as "one of the most important cultural heritage in human civilization" and entered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since December 6, 1985. Petra was chosen by "Smithsonian" magazine as one of the "28 places to visit before dying." [More...]

Petra, Inhabited since prehistoric times, this Nabataean caravan-city, situated between the Red Sea and the Dead Sea, was an important crossroads between Arabia, Egypt and Syria-Phenicia. Petra is half-built, half-carved into the rock, and is surrounded by mountains riddled with passages and gorges. It is one of the world's most famous archaeological sites, where ancient Eastern traditions blend with Hellenistic architecture.
This is one of the 10 Places in the World that Must Seen and can be called one of the most amazing cities ever in the world (where filming Transformer: Revenge of the Fallen), the city left behind by an earthquake that damaged the water system infrastructure in the city.

All the monuments that stand on the sprawling rock and archaeological remains are still in the expanse of arid desert sand and the mera canyon, which lies within the confines of buildings in the Petra National Park area. The monuments are exposed to ongoing erosion due to wind and rain, exacerbated in the past by wind-blown sand caused by grazing animals that reduce ground cover.

The resettlement of more than twenty years ago from the Bdul (Bedouin) tribe and their livestock from their former seasonal residence in the Petra valley to a new village in Umm Sayhun is intended to capture this process.

They are also susceptible to flash floods along the Wadi Musa through the winding canyon (Siq) if Nabata's transfer system is not monitored, repaired, and maintained constantly.

This property is under pressure from tourism, which has grown rapidly since the days of the inscriptions, especially congestion points like Siq which is the main entrance of the city from the east.

These properties are also vulnerable to the infrastructure needs of local communities and tourists. A new sewage treatment plant has been provided inside the property to the north with recycled water used for nearby drip irrigation farming projects. Further infrastructure development proposed within the boundaries includes power supplies and substations, community centers / visitors, open theaters for community events, picnic areas, campsites and new restaurants near the Qasr al Bint temple, all potentially impacting. on the integrity of the property.  [More...]

Sodom & Gomorah

Sodom and Gomorrah (/ sɒdəm /; / ɡəmɔːrə / ) were cities mentioned in the Book of Genesis and throughout the Hebrew Bible, the New Testament and in the deuterocanonical books, as well as in the Quran and the hadith.

According to the Torah, the kingdoms of Sodom and Gomorrah were allied with the cities of Admah, Zeboim and Bela. These five cities, are situated on the Jordan River plain in the southern region of the land of Canaan. The plain, which corresponds to the area just north of the modern day Dead Sea,  was compared to the garden of Eden [Gen.13: 10] as being well-watered and green, suitable for grazing livestock.

Divine judgment by God was passed upon Sodom and Gomorrah and two neighboring cities, which were completely consumed by fire and brimstone. Neighboring Zoar (Bela) was the only city to be spared. In [Jude 1: 7] Sodom and Gomorrah have been used historically and today as metaphors for vice and homosexuality, although a close reading of the text and other Ancient Near Eastern sources suggest that this association may be incorporated. 

The story has since been added to words in several languages. These include the English word sodomy, which is used in sodomy laws to describe sexual "crimes against nature", ie anal or oral sex (particularly homosexual), or bestiality. Some Islamic societies incorporate punishments associated with Sodom and Gomorrah into sharia. [more...]

Lut ibn Haran (Arabic: لوط, translit. Lūṭ), known as Lot in the Old Testament, is a prophet of God in the Quran. He also appears in the Bible, but the biblical stories of Lot are not entirely acceptable within Islam. According to Islamic tradition, Lot lived in Ur and was the son of Haran and nephew of Abraham. He migrated with Abraham to Canaan. He was bestowed as a prophet to the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. He was commanded by God to go to the land of Sodom and Gomorrah to preach to his people on monotheism and to stop them from their lustful and violent acts. According to both the Quran and the Hebrew Bible, Lot's messages were ignored by the inhabitants and Sodom and Gomorrah were subsequently destroyed. Their sites are Dead Sea or underneath its current limits. Lot's story is traditionally presented as an Islamic view against rape and homosexual acts.

Lot's people are the people to whom he is sent on a mission. He was not one of their own brethren, as was Salih or Shuaib. But he looked upon his people as his "brethren".  The Quran says that Lot is a prophet, and so that the report of Lot's drunkenness and incest is considered to be false. [more...]


The etymology of both names is uncertain. The exact original meanings of the names are also uncertain. Some believe, the name Sodom (Hebrew: סְדֹם Səḏōm) could be a word from an early Semitic language ultimately related to the Arabic sadama, meaning "fasten", "fortify", "strengthen", but that is unlikely as the Gesenius' Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon defines the Hebrew word Sodom (Cēdom) as burning. 

Gomorrah (Hebrew: עֲמֹרָה 'Ămōrāh) is a special case for a number of reviews. The Hebrew term transliterated as' amōra was not always pronounced as such. In ancient times, all Semitic languages, including Hebrew, include a letter known as Ghayn which made the sound of the voiced velar fricative (/ ɣ /, or "gh"). At some point, Hebrew merged Ghayn with the letter ayin (ע), so words written the Ghayn no longer preserved the "gh" sound and instead adopted Ayin's vocalization, the voiced pharyngeal fricative (/ ʕ /), which for all intents and purposes can be described as what is essentially a silent letter. The Hebrew term for Gomorrah is one of these words. Thus, the true pronunciation of the term is "ghamōrah", as opposed to the modern "'amōrah". That being said, it's possible the Hebrew term can be based on the root gh-mr, which means "be deep", "copious (water)," but this is also in dispute as it is classically known as עֲמֹרָה'Ămôrâh , am-o-raw '; from H6014; a (ruined) heap; Amorah, a place in Palestine: -Gomorrah. 

There are other stories and historical names which bear a resemblance to the Biblical stories of Sodom and Gomorrah. Some possible natural explanations for the events have been found. Of the five "cities of the plain", only Bela, modern-day Zoara, is securely identified, and it remained a settlement long after the biblical period.


Life and Death in Herculaneum

Pompeii was an ancient Roman town-city near modern Naples, in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei. Pompeii, along with Herculaneum and many villas in the surrounding area, was mostly destroyed and buried under 4 to 6 m (13 to 20 ft) of volcanic ash and pumice in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79.

The ruins of Pompeii are located near the modern suburban town of Pompei (nowadays written with one 'i'). It stands on the springs of the Sarno River (known in ancient times as the Sarnus).
Today it is some distance inland, but in ancient times was nearer to the coast. Pompeii is about 8 km (5.0 mi) away from Mount Vesuvius. It covered a total of 64 to 67 hectares (170 acres) and was home to approximately 11,000 to 11,500 people on the basis of household counts. [4] It is a major city in the region of Campania.

Pompeii, Italy. Pompeii - Forum and Vesuvius. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection

Researchers believe that the town was founded in the 7th or 6th century BC by the Osci or Oscans. It came under the domination of Rome in the 4th century BC, and was conquered and became a Roman colony in 80 BC after it joined an unsuccessful rebellion against the Roman Republic. By the time of its destruction, 160 years later, the population was estimated at 11,000 people, and the city had a water complex system, an amphitheater, a gymnasium, and a port.

The eruption destroyed the city, killing its inhabitants and burying it under tons of ash. Evidence for the destruction Originally came from a surviving letter by Pliny the Younger, who was the surviving letter of Pliny the Elder, the admiral of the Roman fleet, who tried to rescue citizens. The site was lost for about 1,500 years until its initial rediscovery in 1599 and later by Spanish engineer Rocque Joaquin de Alcubierre in 1748. The objects that lay beneath the city have been preserved for more than a millennium because of the long lack of air and moisture. These artefacts provide an extraordinarily detailed insight into the life of a city during the Pax Romana. During the excavation, plaster was used to fill in the voids in the ash layers that once held human bodies. This archaeologists to see the exact position of the person was in when he or she died.

Pompeii has been a tourist destination for over 250 years. Today it has UNESCO World Heritage Site status and is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Italy, with approximately 2.5 million visitors every year. [More... ]

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Islamic Teachings on the Existence of Civilization: the Past, the pre-History, and the Ancient

The 'Myth' City That Ever Lost Thousands of Years, Then Appears (Vol. 1)

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